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Operation Uphold Democracy. In September 1994 the United
States intervened in Haiti to remove the military regime
installed by the 1991 Haitian coup d'etat that overthrew
President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. This operation was named
Operation Uphold Democracy and lasted from 19 September 1994 to
31 March 1995.
Forced Entry. The invasion was to be a force entry but this
was averted at the very last minute. Participating units
included the Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, elements of the Joint
Special Operations Command (Rangers, SEALs and Delta Force), US
Army 7th Transportation Group, and 10th Mountain Division. In
addition the 3rd Special Forces Group was participating. The
82nd Airborne Division had units in the air about to conduct a
combat parachute operation into Haiti. In fact, over 62 aircraft
were in the air prior to the invasion being called off. 1.
Diplomatic Agreement. With the main force of the invasion
just hours from reaching Haiti (some advanced elements had
already infiltrated) an agreement was reached for the leaders of
Haiti to step down and depart the country. The elected
officials, including President Aristide, were allowed to return.
Change in Mission. As a result of the diplomatic agreement
the operation changed from a combat operation to one of
peace-keeping and nation-building.
Participating Units. Over the course of time there were a
number of units that participated in the mission. On the Special
Operations side this included Navy SEALs, JSOC, and Special
Forces. The bulk of the initial SF elements was provided by the
3rd Special Forces Group from Fort Bragg, North Carolina. SF
teams were deployed around the country to establish order and
provide humanitarian assistance. Some units provided Coalition
Support Team (CST) duties with counterpart units. For instance,
a split A detachment from 1st Special Forces Group deployed to
Haiti with a battalion from the Pakistani Army. In 1995 several
companies from the 19th and 20th Special Forces Group deployed
to Haiti for several months providing relief to companies from
the 3rd Special Forces Group.
United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH). Operation Uphold
Democracy officially ended on March 31, 1995 and was replaced by
SF Unit Deployments to Haiti
1994 - 3rd SFGA
1995 - A/1/20th SFGA (with augmentation from SFODA 2035 MA NG)
1995 - B/2/19th SFGA
Websites with Info on Operation Uphold Democracy
Operation Uphold Democracy by Wikipedia
Intervention in Haiti, 1994-1995, Department of State Office
of the Historian
Operation Uphold Democracy, Deployment Health Clinical Center
U.S. PSYOP in Haiti - Operation Uphold Democracy
Papers and Publications about Haiti
Pastor, Dr. Robert et al. Assessment Mission to Haiti,
The Carter Center, January 1995.
Shaw, Robert C., Special Operations Forces Doctrine in
Haiti, thesis presented to the faculty of the U.S. Army
Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,
Kretchik, Walter E., Robert F. Baumann, and John T. Fishel.
Invasion, Intervention, 'Intervasion': A Concise History of
the U.S. Army in Operation Uphold Democracy, U.S. Army
Command and General Staff College Press, Fort Leavenworth,
News Reports about SF in Haiti
April 17, 1995.
"The Siege of Mirebalais", The New Yorker, by
Tracy Kidder. Story about a Special Forces troops in Haiti as
part of Operation Uphold Democracy.
January 13, 1995.
"Special Forces Soldier Dies in Haiti". DoD News Release.
SFC Gregory D. Cardott, age 36, died in Haiti on January 12,
1995 after being shot by a Haitian gunaman in Gonaives. He was
assigned to 3rd Special Forces Group.
October 30, 1994.
"Haiti Turns U.S. Soldiers into Cops". Chicago Tribune.
A news story about a 3rd SFGA detachment located in the
town of Miragoane, Haiti that assume the role of police in their
area of operations. More than half of Haiti's police had
deserted and the remainder were dispised by the population.
October 26, 1994.
"A Yank Called Marconi Symbolizes U.S. in Haiti". Los
Angeles Times. Story on SF team in Jacmel, Haiti.
October 4, 1994.
"US Troops in Southern Haiti Town Face Showdown with Local
Military". The Christian Science Monitor. The story
about the US taken control of Les Cayes, Haiti.
1. See page 76 of Invasion, Intervention, 'Intervasion'',
by Walter Kretchik et al, Fort Leavenworty, KS, 1998.